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Thread: Pathfinder Mechanics and Rules

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Mar 2016

    Post Pathfinder Mechanics and Rules

    This will be the mechanics and rules teaching thread to make this game beginner friendly.

    It will help to have a Pathfinder Character Sheet in view while you read, like this one:

    Basic How-To: The Dice Rolls You Will Make

    The Basic Dice Mechanic:
    To determine the outcome of an action you attempted (a Skill check, an attack roll, etc.) just roll d20 and add any appropriate modifiers. The higher you roll, the better!

    -->For most things the GM will add situational modifiers based on things like climate, terrain, the initial attitude of an NPC or creature if it's a social interaction based Skill check, and other various favorable or unfavorable conditions that players can't control.

    Skill Check rolls:
    See your Character Sheet for the total modifier you should include with each of your Skill check rolls. (Each rank put into the Skill gives you +1 to your roll for that Skill, and the number of ranks in a particular Skill CANNOT exceed your current character level.)

    Skills cover everything from persuading someone (Diplomacy Skill or, if you're lying, Bluff Skill) to balancing on a narrow or slippery surface (Acrobatics Skill) to remembering important information (Knowledge Skills) to opening a locked door or disarming a trap (Disable Device Skill) and so much more!

    --> Under each character class entry in Core Rulebook is a list of "Class Skills" to which you get a permanent +3 proficiency bonus IF you put at least 1 rank into that Skill.

    -->You always add the appropriate stat bonus from Strength or Wisdom (or whichever) to your d20 dice roll modifier, whether you have at least 1 rank in that Skill or not.

    --> YOU CANNOT MAKE Certain Skill checks unless you put at least 1 rank in that Skill to represent your experience and/or training: Disable Device, Knowledge (Any), Linguistics, Profession (Any), Sleight of Hand, Spellcraft, and Use Magic Device.

    --> Unlike attack rolls, a Natural "1" on a d20 roll is NOT an automatic failure for a Skill check roll. Nor is a "Natural 20" an automatic success for Skills.

    *How to "Aid Another" on Skill Check rolls: You can use the "Aid Another" action to roll d20 and, if your result is "10" or higher, grant your ally +2 to his result.

    -->You cannot "Aid Another" on the following Skills: ANY of the Skills listed above that require 1 rank in them to be used at all. Also Skills that require one individual's personal effort such as Acrobatics, Fly, Perception, Perform, and Ride.

    -->You can "Aid Another" on social Skills like Diplomacy or Intimidate or Bluff, but you risk distracting the NPC from the person addressing them or increasing their suspicion or discomfiture or resolve.

    Ability Check rolls:
    Use these d20 rolls and add your appropriate stat modifier ONLY to accomplish something that is not explicitly covered by Skill checks. Examples would be solving a riddle (d20 + Intelligence modifier) or winning an arm wrestling contest (d20 + Strength modifier).

    Attack rolls:
    The numbers you add to your d20 roll depends on the nature of your attack. You will ALWAYS add your Base Attack Bonus (from your class entry in the Core Rulebook) and one appropriate stat modifier. The two types of attacks are Melee and Ranged.

    -->Melee attacks (swords, touch range spells, etc.) are against foes within arm's reach. Melee attacks always use your Strength modifier UNLESS you took a special Feat like "Weapon Finesse" that lets you use your Dexterity modifier instead.

    *For melee damage rolls always add your Strength modifier. (It is rare for ranged weapon damage rolls to include your Strength modifier, but check the weapon's entry to be sure.)

    -->Ranged attacks (bows, thrown weapons, most spells, etc.) are made from at least ten feet away (if you play your turn wisely). Ranged attacks always use your Dexterity modifier (except for VERY rare exceptions based on Feat choices or Class options).

    Types of Melee Attacks:

    (1) "Unarmed strike"
    melee attacks (punch, kick, headbutt, etc.) : Roll d20 and add your Base Attack Bonus a.k.a. "BAB" (determined by your Class entry in Core Rulebook) and add your *Strength modifier. (*Unless you took the Weapon Finesse Feat, in which case you may add your Dexterity modifier instead.)

    -->Damage rolled for an unarmed strike is d3 + Strength modifier (for a Medium-sized creature, like most races).

    *Unless you take the Feat "Improved Unarmed Strike," your foe gets a free, immediate attempt to hit you back.

    *Damage rolled for all other attacks depends on the specific weapon or spell entry in the book.

    (2) Melee weapon (or touch spell) attack: Roll d20 and add your Base Attack Bonus and your Strength modifier. (*Unless you use Weapon Finesse with a natural or "light" weapon and add Dexterity instead.)

    -->POTENTIAL BONUSES: You may also end up adding some, or NONE, of the following bonuses to your melee attack roll...

    +1 for a masterwork weapon enhancement bonus
    + ___ (varies) bonus for a Feat or (more rarely) a Trait you took as part of character creation or leveling up your character
    +1 (or more) for a magic spell or enchanted item related enhancement bonus (e.g., shocking grasp grants +3 on attack rolls to hit an opponent wearing metal)

    -->POTENTIAL MINUSES: Do NOT worry about these, because this GM will always keep track of any that apply for you, and factor these into your to final total.

    Types of Ranged Attacks:

    (1) Ranged weapon/spell attack:
    Roll d20 and add your Base Attack Bonus and your Dexterity modifier.

    -->You may also end up adding some of the same types of bonuses to ranged attacks as you would to melee attacks, see the list of POTENTIAL BONUSES above.

    Spell Attacks That are Neither Melee Nor Ranged: The Exceptions!

    (1) Spell Attack: Certain spells DO NOT require a d20 attack roll. Individual spell descriptions explain this. Examples are magic missile (which hits automatically) and area effect spells like color spray which has a fifteen foot cone area of effect. (Think of it as "I'm just releasing this HERE where it can do the most good to my allies/harm to my enemies.")

    See diagrams of area effects on this combat grid:

    Now that we've covered rolling dice, here's a discussion of what a COMBAT GRID like in the above image is for: Two words...Battlefield Positioning!

    Combat Grid:
    You know you're in a real fight when you see a combat grid from your GM. Time for tactics!

    It means you have to start thinking about your position relative to your enemy with questions like these:

    (1) Are you in melee attack range, i.e., are beside the enemy in a five-foot square that is DIRECTLY above them or below them or beside them or diagonal to them?

    Or are you in (safe) ranged attack range (at least 10 feet away)? Ask Yourself: Which range do you WANT to be in, and use your MOVE ACTION to get there!

    (2) How much movement do you have to spend, in order to get closer to, or farther from, your enemy? (Each square = five feet.) Most races can move at a speed of 30 ft (IF they are not burdened with too much weight from either certain type of "medium armor" or "heavy armor," or encumbered by carrying a medium or heavy load beyond their "light" load carrying capacity as determined by Strength score).
    Last edited by magrat4; 10-30-2017 at 10:51 PM. Reason: spacing

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Mar 2016


    "ACTIONS" in Combat Part I


    In a combat encounter the game is broken into units of time/activity called “combat rounds,” and it is turn based according to "Initiative." Each round lasts about 6 seconds.

    YOUR TURN: Each round your PC can take ONE Standard Action and ONE Move Action and UNLIMITED Free Actions.

    -->Alternately your PC can take TWO Move actions, and UNLIMITED Free Actions.

    Standard Actions include:
    -->Casting most spells (for exceptions see “Casting Time” in the spell’s entry)
    -->retrieving a specific item of gear (that is not a weapon or wand)
    -->most Skill checks (Heal, Diplomacy or Intimidate, Use Magic Device, etc.), ask GM if you are not sure
    -->most magic items' activation (e.g., wands) BUT see the individual item's entry to be sure
    -->most Spell-Like Ability activation/use (BUT check the individual entry in the source book to be sure)
    -->shaking a character "awake" if they are sleeping, or under certain kinds of enchantment effects like being "fascinated"
    -->Ready Action: You declare if a "trigger" event happens, you will interrupt it with a readied response, e.g, "I will shoot the wizard if he runs!" [See below for a more thorough explanation.]

    Move Actions include:
    -->moving up to your maximum racial move speed (30 ft for all of you, EXCEPT Mammon only moves up to 20 ft while in his chainmail)
    -->Skill checks when you are in motion: Acrobatics to tumble nimbly through or past an enemy’s square without being hit, to jump, etc; Ride Skill checks, Climb Skill checks, and Swim Skill checks
    -->drawing an item from a bag of holding
    -->A "5-foot step" is a SPECIAL Move action in which your PC moves exactly one grid square forward/back/sideways/diagonally.
    ~~~~>The 5-foot step allows you to make a Full-Attack action (see below) that same round, but you do not need to.
    ~~~~>If if you have used a 5-foot step, you MAY NOT take another Move action into a new square, but you MAY use one other Move Action that same combat round (like retrieving an item from a bag of holding)

    Free Actions include:
    -->Drawing a weapon (using the Quick Draw Feat)
    -->Knowledge Skill checks (or Spellcraft Checks)
    -->Dropping an item you hold
    -->Activating certain class abilities (rage for barbarian Thurok, draconic claws for sorcerer Skie)

    WAIT, aren't there other types of Actions in Pathfinder? Yes, I'm just trying to introduce the relevant ones a few at a time, but here are three more:

    Swift Action (of which you get ONE per round; longer than a Free Action but shorter than a Move Action) includes:
    -->certain very rare, specific magic items' activation, as explained in that item's official entry published by Paizo (there are NO examples in our current Level One game)
    -->certain very rare, specific class abilities' activation, as explained in that ability's official entry---for example Mammon's paladin ability "Smite Evil" is a Swift Action declared BEFORE a particular d20 attack roll
    -->various kinds be obtained through specific Feats (no examples of this in our current game)

    Full-Round Action (ONE per round, and to use a 'full-round' action you must move no further than 5 feet with your Move action) includes
    -->Full-attack action, such as using two natural attacks (like Skie's draconic bloodline claws) OR using two weapons (with the Two-Weapon Fighting Feat)

    Ready Action: You may use your Standard action to prepare this response type action. You must describe what very specific event will "trigger" you to use this very specific reactionary action on your part (which you must also describe). IF and only IF the "triggering" action does happen, your "ready action" will INTERRUPT that triggering action. [Note, this will delay your action by causing you to act after the NPC instead of before them.]

    Example: "If any NPC draws a weapon, I will shoot my magic missile spell at them."

    EDIT: We had to make a House Rule about how many actions you can prepare to interrupt with your Readied Action.

    You can only choose ONE Readied (interrupting) action: Example 1: "If...then I will trip him." Period. Example 2: "If...then I will attack him." Period.

    How many "triggers" can be given for a Readied Action is (according to Paizo message boards) a matter of interpretation. Only thing everyone agrees on (including Core text) is that you can't take a 5 foot step to follow someone taking a 5 foot step unless you have not used a Move action to traverse distance on the turn you Readied an Action.

    So I am going to House Rule when you Ready an Action, you can select up to 3 "triggering" actions. (Like: if he runs, if he casts a spell, or if he takes a 5 ft step, I will attack.)

    What you see above is NOT a comprehensive list of all your possible actions in combat that you can make as your Standard Action or Move Action. Not even CLOSE!

    For the FULL list, read this chapter from the CORE rulebook (which introduces many other concepts we haven't covered yet) :
    Last edited by magrat4; 12-21-2017 at 03:58 AM. Reason: added House Rule re: Ready an Action triggers

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Mar 2016


    "ACTIONS" in Combat Part II: Attacks of Opportunity
    As GM I will be rolling and resolving ALL Attacks of Opportunity for efficiency reasons, but you should know about them so you can make informed combat positioning decisions.

    Attack of Opportunity:
    An immediate action that interrupts an enemy's action with an attack (before he can complete his action) because his Movement or other action left him vulnerable and provoked such an attack while he was IN or ABOVE or ADJACENT to the enemy's grid square.

    -->In other words, a character "threatens" any square within 5 feet of him IF he has a weapon or is otherwise armed for melee combat, and IF a foe's Movement (other than a 5-foot step) causes the foe to leave a square that character threatens, then the character gets an Attack of Opportunity against his foe.

    -->Also in other words, if a character performs an action that leaves him vulnerable to attack while remaining in a square he occupies within 5 feet of a foe armed for melee who threatens that square, that foe gets an AOO against him.

    -->This complicates combat A LOT by causing players and GMs to over-think how to avoid AOOs, and make extra rolls that help them avoid them (like Acrobatics checks to tumble past the enemy's square, or "cast defensively" checks). It complicates decision-making so much that the designers eliminated it in D&D 5th edition.

    -->Rather than attempt the impossible (personally, succinctly summing up what does and does not provoke an AOO using only the concepts we've learned so far) I'm going to let the Golem do it (Paizo's nickname).

    The above table IS a pretty comprehensive list of every action you could take during combat. We'll learn about them in detail as we go.

    There is even more to say about Attacks of Opportunity when dealing with a foe who can reach and threaten the squares within 10 feet rather than 5 feet, but we'll get to that later.

    Okay, so how DO I avoid Attacks of Opportunity?

    1) Avoiding an AOO from your Movement action:

    -->If you take only a "5-foot step" you will NOT suffer an AOO, as long as that 5-foot step gets you outside every foe's reach (and remember, some foes get a reach or "threatened area" of 10 feet). However, you cannot take other Move Actions involving movement in the same round as a 5-foot step.

    -->Make an Acrobatics Skill check as your Move Action to "tumble" past the enemy IF you are not wearing medium or heavy armor or carrying a medium or heavier load that reduces your speed---otherwise you cannot do this. The DC of this check is your foe's Combat Maneuver Defense. (The DC increases to 5 + foe's CMB if you attempt to tumble through the square the foe actually occupies with his body.)

    NEW: When making an Acrobatics Skill check to tumble past or away from your enemy, you move at HALF speed. You can try to move at FULL speed (30 feet for most creatures) but if you do the DC increases by 10.

    2) Avoiding an AOO from casting a spell:

    -->You will NOT suffer an AOO if you "cast defensively" by rolling a "concentration check" d20 + your caster level + your casting stat modifier. The DC for your concentration check is the level of your spell x2 (i.e., double the level of your spell) + 15. Failure means you lose the spell (but still don't get an AOO).

    -->Take a 5-foot step to get out of your foe's (or foes') reach (which is generally only 5 feet of reach, i.e., threatening adjacent squares).

    3) Avoiding an AOO from making a ranged attack:

    --> Make sure you are outside the foe's "threatened area" (usually a 5 foot radius of adjacent grid squares) before you roll your attack, by using an Acrobatics Skill Check to tumble to safety OR a 5-foot step.

    4) Avoiding an AOO from an unarmed strike (punching or kicking someone) or a Combat Manuever (try to Trip foe, Disarm foe, Grapple foe, etc.) :

    -->Take the appropriate Feat, e.g., "Improved Unarmed Strike" or "Improved Trip" or "Improved Disarm" or "Improved Grapple," etc.

    5) Avoiding an AOO from retrieving a stored item

    -->Get a handy haversack (or its nearest equivalent): a wondrous magic item where what you desire is always on top, and retrieving any item is a Move action that does NOT provoke an AOO.

    Updated 8-13-17
    Last edited by magrat4; 08-13-2017 at 03:57 AM. Reason: fixed pics (new hosting site)

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Mar 2016


    Special Combat Modifiers, Part I:

    Your GM is responsible for enforcing all of these in our game, so you do NOT need to include them in your rolls and calculations. However you should be aware of them when making tactical decisions.

    Possible Melee Attack Roll BONUSES include:

    -->Flanking: automatic +2 on melee attack rolls if your enemy is "sandwiched" directly between you and your ally who stand in adjacent squares to his, and a straight line can be drawn connecting all three of you. Both you and your ally must be armed with a melee weapon and "threatening" the enemy in order to gain this +2 bonus.

    In the above image the Rogue needs to move five feet to the right in order to flank the Ogre with the fighter. Also notice that the Large ogre has a 10 ft reach due to his size, and is therefore flanking the sorcerer he threatens along with his goblin ally.

    **Special for Rogues: A rogue currently flanking in melee can use his sneak attack class feature (+1d6 damage dice at 1st level) against the flanked foe.

    -->Melee attacks vs Prone creatures: +4 on attack rolls against an enemy lying flat on the ground, a condition usually resulting from being tripped or knocked down.

    -->Charging: This Full-round Action grants a +2 on your melee attack roll and requires you to run at least 10 feet in a straight line at your foe (with NO obstacles and NO difficult terrain between you) and make a single attack against him from the first adjacent square you enter. You also take an Armor Class penalty of -2 for one round.

    NEW: -->Higher ground: For melee attacks you can get a +1 from higher ground (e.g., you are flying directly above, or leaping through the air and downward)

    Possible Ranged Attack Roll PENALTIES include:

    -->Penalty of -4 for aiming your ranged weapon into a melee situation (i.e. an area where two or more adjacent combatants, including at least one who is your friendly ally, are actively using melee weapons against each other).

    **There is NO -4 penalty IF the enemy target is so large that you can aim into a part of its body in a square 10 feet away from your ally AND definitely NO penalty at all if the enemy target is at least three size categories larger than your friendly ally. The size categories are Fine, Diminutive, Tiny, Small, Medium, Large (occupies four total grid squares, 10 ft by 10 ft), Huge (occupies nine total grid squares, 15 ft by 15 ft), Gargantuan (occupies sixteen total grid squares, 20 ft by 20 ft), Colossal (occupies 36 total grid squares, 30 ft by 30 ft).

    **There is also NO -4 penalty if the friendly ally is at least 10 feet away from your enemy target (i.e., engaged in melee combat using weapons with the "reach" property.)

    **You can avoid this -4 penalty by taking the Feat called Precise Shot.

    -->Penalty of -4 for a ranged attack against a foe who is Prone, i.e., lying flat on the ground.

    -->Penalty of -2 for every measure of your weapon's range increment (listed in its equipment table entry) that you attempt to go beyond.

    In other words, from range 0 up until the range increment of the weapon (10 feet for a thrown dagger, 80 feet for a light crossbow, etc), you do not have any range penalty to your attack roll.

    Example 1: A dagger's range increment is 10 feet. It has no penalty up to 10 feet, a –2 penalty for up to 20 feet, –4 for up to 30 feet, -6 for up to 40 feet, and lastly -8 for up to its maximum range of 50 feet. (The maximum range you can THROW a weapon like a dagger = 5x its range of 10 = 50 feet.)

    Example 2: A light crossbow has a range increment of 80 feet. It has no penalty up to 80 feet, a –2 penalty for up to 160 feet, –4 for up to 240 feet, -6 for up to 320 feet, and so forth up to its maximum range of 800 feet. (The maximum range you can SHOOT a weapon like a crossbow = 10x its range of 80 = 800 feet.)

    Updated 8-13-17

    Last edited by magrat4; 08-13-2017 at 04:00 AM. Reason: fixed pic, new hosting site; added higher ground bonus

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Mar 2016


    Combat Manuevers, Part I:

    For a combat manuever you roll with your Combat Manuever Bonus (CMB), which is d20+ BAB + Str mod (+ any mod from an applicable Feat like Improved Grapple or Agile Manuevers).

    **Instead of aiming for Armor Class (AC), you are usually aiming to beat your opponent's Combat Maneuver Defense (CMD), which is d20+BAB+Dex mod+Strength mod (+ any mod from an applicable Feat like Improved Grapple).

    Common types of combat maneuvers are

    Attempting to seize your opponent and restrict his movement. Here is a handy chart from about the options (and complications) that open up when a grapple is initiated.

    **CAVEAT: I would rather this flow chart had simply said "Attacker's Turn" and "Defender's Turn" because all of this could happen in "Round 1" of a combat. If the Attacker tries to grapple in Round 1, the Defender can respond on their turn in Round 1 provided they act later in the initiative order.

    Updated 8-13-17

    Last edited by magrat4; 10-31-2017 at 12:05 AM. Reason: added pix and explanation

  6. #6
    Join Date
    Mar 2016


    Manuevering in Combat with Special Movements: Fly, Burrow, Climb, or Swim (not to be confused with "Combat Maneuvers")

    Sometimes a special form of movement with its own speed (like Fly or Climb or Swim) requires additional Skill checks and rules.

    Making a Fly Skill check is not a Move action, it is just part of your movement using your fly speed (and either wings or magical flight like the fly spell). Same goes for Climb Skill and Climb speed.



    -->If you fly in a horizontal line parallel to the ground AND you move a total of squares equal to at least half your current speed, OR

    -->If you use the standard 45 degree angle of ascent AND you move a total of squares equal to at least half your current speed

    You ALWAYS move at half-speed while rising up at the standard 45 degree angle, but WITHOUT the usual penalty of alternating 5 ft for the first diagonal square and 10 for the second, then five for the next, then 10 ft, and so on. In other words when flying at 45 degree angle you count each square as 5 ft, PERIOD.

    -->No Fly check for using the special Charge action (so long as you move distance at least half your total speed).

    FLY SKILL CHECKS REQUIRED FOR THE FOLLOWING (table courtesy of the Golem)

    Special Rules for Flying

    a) Flying vertically straight down: descend at double your normal fly speed. (DC 20 Fly check)

    b) Flying vertically straight up: ascend at half your normal fly speed. (DC 20 Fly check)

    c) Manueverability: Either grants you a bonus or a penalty to your Fly Skill check (listed in a spell description like that of fly or beast shape I, or in a winged creature's entry beside fly speed).

    Example: Fly potions grant good manueverability (+4 bonus), plus an additional bonus of 1/2 caster level of creator.

    d) Wind/weather: Adverse conditions may increase the DC of Fly Skill checks.

    PENALTIES for Fly Skill Check failure:

    If your flight is magical, you must complete your movement (by moving at least half your current max movement) AND you cannot attempt the same maneuver again until the next round. If you cannot complete your movement to keep yourself aloft, you land instead (or at least descend 10 ft).

    If your flight uses wings, you plummet/fall down when you fail by 5 or more.

    You must make a DC 15 Fly Skill check to Hover in the same square you started. If you fail, you must move at least half your move speed to stay aloft, or else descend, either of which could provoke an AOO.


    Burrowing is a form of movement with its own speed that requires no Skill check, unlike flying or climbing.

    Burrowing DOES count as your Move. (E.g. for burrow spell, move 15 ft per Move action, or 10 ft with medium/heavy armor or load. Move slower through rock (5 ft) than you do through lose dirt or sand.

    DOs of Burrowing:

    -->You can cast spells or do other things requiring concentration, as normal while burrowing.

    -->You can attack as normal while burrowing.

    DON'TS of Burowing:

    -->You cannot charge or run while burrowing.

    -->You cannot leave a tunnel behind you for someone else to use, because you fill in the tunnel behind you (or in the burrow spell, the tunnel "collapses" 1 round after you move forward).


    Climb Skill Check is *necessary, e.g., to move up or across a roof with greater than a 45 degree angle slope. But you MUST have both hands free and you move 1/4 speed.

    *Alternately use Acrobatics SKill Check to move on the sloped roof surface without falling. A successful check allows you to move at half speed across such surfaces—only one check is needed per round.


    -->“Accelerated climb” (half speed instead of ) imposes a -5 to your Climb check.

    -->Climb Speed (racial or a spell like spider's climb) grants +8 to your check AND you can always choose to take 10, even if rushed or threatened. Accelerated climb still lets you move double your climb speed (or land speed, whichever is slower) and make a single Climb check at a –5 penalty.

    -->You LOSE
    Dexterity bonus to Armor Class (if any) while climbing, UNLESS you have a Climb speed, in which case opponents get no special bonus to their attacks against you. (But you cannot use the run action while climbing.)

    Climb Skill Check Difficulties:

    Moving on an angled roof surface without changing altitude (moving parallel to the peak) requires a DC 15 Acrobatics (*or hands-free Climb) check.

    Moving up and down across the peak of a roof requires a DC 10 Acrobatics (*or hands-free Climb) check. Moving along the
    peak of a pitched roof requires a DC 20 Acrobatics (*or hands-free Climb) check.

    If you are dealt damage while Climbing/using Acrobatics to move, you must make a new check immediately or fall prone (and on a sloped surface you slide five feet closer to the nearest edge).

    CLIMB CHECK DC CHART from the Golem:


    Swim resembles Climb. You must make a Skill Check unless you have a listed Swim speed from a racial ability or spell like beast shape I. But using the Skill is merely part of your movement.

    Make a Swim check once per round while you are in the water. Success means you may swim at up to half your speed (as a full-round action) or at a quarter of your speed (as a move action). If you fail by 4 or less, you make no progress. If you fail by 5 or more, you go underwater.

    GOLEM'S Swim chart and summaries:

    Updated 10-30-17
    Last edited by magrat4; 10-31-2017 at 12:58 AM.


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